**download Physics Formula sheet**

**Commonly used formulas for Class XI & XII CBSE Physics:**

- Units and Measurements:
- Speed: Speed = Distance / Time
- Acceleration: Acceleration = (Change in Velocity) / Time

- Motion in a Straight Line:
- Average Speed: Average Speed = Total Distance / Total Time
- Uniformly Accelerated Motion: v = u + at, s = ut + (1/2)at^2, v^2 = u^2 + 2as

- Laws of Motion:
- Newton’s Second Law: F = ma
- Weight: Weight = mg
- Frictional Force: F = μN, where μ is the coefficient of friction and N is the normal force.

- Work, Energy, and Power:
- Work: Work = Force * Displacement * cosθ
- Kinetic Energy: KE = (1/2)mv^2
- Potential Energy: PE = mgh
- Power: Power = Work / Time

- System of Particles and Rotational Motion:
- Moment of Inertia: I = Σmr^2
- Torque: Torque = Force * Perpendicular Distance
- Angular Momentum: L = Iω

- Gravitation:
- Universal Law of Gravitation: F = (G * m1 * m2) / r^2
- Gravitational Potential Energy: PE = (-G * m1 * m2) / r
- Escape Velocity: v = √(2GM / R)

- Mechanical Properties of Solids:
- Stress: Stress = Force / Area
- Strain: Strain = Change in Length / Original Length
- Young’s Modulus: Y = (Stress / Strain)

- Thermodynamics:
- First Law of Thermodynamics: ΔU = Q – W
- Heat Transfer: Q = mcΔT
- Efficiency: Efficiency = (Useful Work Output) / (Total Energy Input)

- Oscillations:
- Periodic Time: T = 1 / Frequency
- Simple Harmonic Motion: x = A * cos(ωt), v = -Aω * sin(ωt), a = -Aω^2 * cos(ωt)

- Waves:
- Wave Velocity: v = λf
- Frequency: f = 1 / T
- Snell’s Law: n1 sinθ1 = n2 sinθ2

**Class XII CBSE Physics formulas, organized by topic:**

- Electrostatics:
- Coulomb’s Law: F = k * (|q1 * q2|) / r^2
- Electric Field Intensity: E = k * (|q|) / r^2
- Electric Potential: V = k * (|q|) / r
- Electric Potential Energy: U = q * V
- Capacitance: C = Q / V
- Energy Stored in a Capacitor: U = (1/2) * C * V^2

- Current Electricity:
- Ohm’s Law: V = I * R
- Resistance in Series: R_total = R1 + R2 + R3 + …
- Resistance in Parallel: (1/R_total) = (1/R1) + (1/R2) + (1/R3) + …
- Power: P = I * V = (I^2) * R = (V^2) / R

- Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism:
- Magnetic Field due to a Straight Conductor: B = (μ0 * I) / (2π * r)
- Magnetic Field due to a Circular Loop: B = (μ0 * I) / (2R)
- Magnetic Force on a Moving Charge: F = q * v * B * sinθ
- Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor: F = I * L * B * sinθ
- Magnetic Moment of a Current Loop: μ = I * A

- Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current:
- Faraday’s Law: ε = -dΦ/dt
- Lenz’s Law: The direction of an induced current is such that it opposes the change causing it.
- Self-Inductance: L = (N * Φ) / I
- Mutual Inductance: M = (N2 * Φ1) / I2 = (N1 * Φ2) / I1
- AC Voltage and Current: V = V0 * sin(ωt) and I = I0 * sin(ωt + φ)
- Power in AC Circuit: P = Vrms * Irms * cosφ

- Optics:
- Lens Formula: (1/f) = (1/v) – (1/u)
- Magnification: m = -v/u
- Snell’s Law: n1 * sinθ1 = n2 * sinθ2
- Young’s Double-Slit Interference: λ = (d * sinθ) / m
- Thin Film Interference: 2nt = mλ

- Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation:
- de Broglie Wavelength: λ = h / p
- Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation: E = hf = Φ + K.E.

- Atoms and Nuclei:
- Rydberg Formula: 1/λ = R_H * (1/n1^2 – 1/n2^2)
- Energy of an Electron in an Orbit: E = (-2π^2 * me * Z^2 * e^4) / (2 * (4πε0)^2 * n^2 * h^2)

- Electronic Devices:
- Transistor Action: Ic = β * Ib
- Feedback Amplifier Gain: A = (A0) / (1 + (β * A0))