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Commonly used formulas for Class XI & XII CBSE Physics:

1. Units and Measurements:
• Speed: Speed = Distance / Time
• Acceleration: Acceleration = (Change in Velocity) / Time
2. Motion in a Straight Line:
• Average Speed: Average Speed = Total Distance / Total Time
• Uniformly Accelerated Motion: v = u + at, s = ut + (1/2)at^2, v^2 = u^2 + 2as
3. Laws of Motion:
• Newton’s Second Law: F = ma
• Weight: Weight = mg
• Frictional Force: F = μN, where μ is the coefficient of friction and N is the normal force.
4. Work, Energy, and Power:
• Work: Work = Force * Displacement * cosθ
• Kinetic Energy: KE = (1/2)mv^2
• Potential Energy: PE = mgh
• Power: Power = Work / Time
5. System of Particles and Rotational Motion:
• Moment of Inertia: I = Σmr^2
• Torque: Torque = Force * Perpendicular Distance
• Angular Momentum: L = Iω
6. Gravitation:
• Universal Law of Gravitation: F = (G * m1 * m2) / r^2
• Gravitational Potential Energy: PE = (-G * m1 * m2) / r
• Escape Velocity: v = √(2GM / R)
7. Mechanical Properties of Solids:
• Stress: Stress = Force / Area
• Strain: Strain = Change in Length / Original Length
• Young’s Modulus: Y = (Stress / Strain)
8. Thermodynamics:
• First Law of Thermodynamics: ΔU = Q – W
• Heat Transfer: Q = mcΔT
• Efficiency: Efficiency = (Useful Work Output) / (Total Energy Input)
9. Oscillations:
• Periodic Time: T = 1 / Frequency
• Simple Harmonic Motion: x = A * cos(ωt), v = -Aω * sin(ωt), a = -Aω^2 * cos(ωt)
10. Waves:
• Wave Velocity: v = λf
• Frequency: f = 1 / T
• Snell’s Law: n1 sinθ1 = n2 sinθ2

Class XII CBSE Physics formulas, organized by topic:

1. Electrostatics:
• Coulomb’s Law: F = k * (|q1 * q2|) / r^2
• Electric Field Intensity: E = k * (|q|) / r^2
• Electric Potential: V = k * (|q|) / r
• Electric Potential Energy: U = q * V
• Capacitance: C = Q / V
• Energy Stored in a Capacitor: U = (1/2) * C * V^2
2. Current Electricity:
• Ohm’s Law: V = I * R
• Resistance in Series: R_total = R1 + R2 + R3 + …
• Resistance in Parallel: (1/R_total) = (1/R1) + (1/R2) + (1/R3) + …
• Power: P = I * V = (I^2) * R = (V^2) / R
3. Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism:
• Magnetic Field due to a Straight Conductor: B = (μ0 * I) / (2π * r)
• Magnetic Field due to a Circular Loop: B = (μ0 * I) / (2R)
• Magnetic Force on a Moving Charge: F = q * v * B * sinθ
• Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor: F = I * L * B * sinθ
• Magnetic Moment of a Current Loop: μ = I * A
4. Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current:
• Faraday’s Law: ε = -dΦ/dt
• Lenz’s Law: The direction of an induced current is such that it opposes the change causing it.
• Self-Inductance: L = (N * Φ) / I
• Mutual Inductance: M = (N2 * Φ1) / I2 = (N1 * Φ2) / I1
• AC Voltage and Current: V = V0 * sin(ωt) and I = I0 * sin(ωt + φ)
• Power in AC Circuit: P = Vrms * Irms * cosφ
5. Optics:
• Lens Formula: (1/f) = (1/v) – (1/u)
• Magnification: m = -v/u
• Snell’s Law: n1 * sinθ1 = n2 * sinθ2
• Young’s Double-Slit Interference: λ = (d * sinθ) / m
• Thin Film Interference: 2nt = mλ
6. Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation:
• de Broglie Wavelength: λ = h / p
• Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation: E = hf = Φ + K.E.
7. Atoms and Nuclei:
• Rydberg Formula: 1/λ = R_H * (1/n1^2 – 1/n2^2)
• Energy of an Electron in an Orbit: E = (-2π^2 * me * Z^2 * e^4) / (2 * (4πε0)^2 * n^2 * h^2)
8. Electronic Devices:
• Transistor Action: Ic = β * Ib
• Feedback Amplifier Gain: A = (A0) / (1 + (β * A0))